Corydoras julii

Super Group: 
Opisthokonta
Phylum: 
Chordata
Sub-Phylum: 
Vertebrata
Class: 
Actinopteri
Order: 
Siluriformes
Family: 
Callichthyidae
Sub-Family: 
Corydoradinae
Genus: 
Corydoras
Species: 
julii
Authority: 
Steindachner 1906
Synonym(s): 
Corydoras leopardus (Myers, 1933)

Diagnosis

Diagnosis_Genus: Corrydoras Lacépède. De grandes lames de chaque côté du corps et de la queue; la tête couverte de pièces larges et dures; la bouche à l’extrémité du museau; point de barbillons; deux nageoires dorsales; plus d’un rayon à chaque nageoire du dos.

Diagnosis_Species: Corrydoras Julli Steindachner. Depth of body 2 1/2 to 2 2/3 in the length, length of head 3 to 3 1/3. Snout 2 in length of head, diameter of eye 4, interorbital width 2. Barbels not reaching gill-opening. Dorsal I 8; spine a little shorter than that of pectoral, which is as long as head; 3 median scutes before adipose fin. Anal I 6. Scutes 21/20. Head, upper | of liody, dorsal and caudal fins with numerous small dark spots, those on the caudal forming 7 to 10 transverse series. A lateral series of hirger spots and a large black spot on upper part of dorsal fin. R. Paraliim. Total length 52 mm.

Body_adults_length_mean: 6 cm

Etymology

Corydoras: from the Ancient Greek κόρυς (korus), meaning ‘helmet’, and δορά (dora), meaning ‘skin, hide of an animal’, in allusion to the rows of bony plates on the flanks of genus members.
julii: named in honour of a person whose identity remains a mystery.

Type species

The type species of the genus Corydoras is Corydoras geoffroy (Lacépède, 1803).

Type illustration / Type locality / Type specimen

Type locality: Creek into River Parnaíba near Alto Parnaíba (= Victoria), 9°08'S, 45°56'W, Brazil.
Lectotype (by present designation), NMW 61105 (ex NMW 46734), si 29.6 mm, Brazil-Maranhäo, creek into Rio Parnaiba near Alto Parnaiba (= Victoria) (09°08'S 45°56'W), coll. F. Steindachner, V/VI-1903; — 479
Paralectotypes: (several) NMW 46734-36 (5, 2, 2), 46741-43 (3, 22, 40); MNHN 1907-0176 (2); MZUT 1676 (1); RMNH 7975 (3); ZMA 110474 [ex NMW 46375] (6), 110475 [ex NMW 46736] (3); ZSM 17995-98 (4).

Ecology

Sociability_adults: gregarious
Substrate: water
Substrate: sand
Substrate: smooth gravel
Salinity: freshwater
Temperature: 22-26 °C (26 °C for the sexual reproduction)
Depth: Epipelagic
pH: 6.0-7.8 (7.0 for the sexual reproduction)
Migratory: no

Life cycle

Longevity: more than 3 years (5 years at least)
Reproduction_mode: sexual (two males for one female)
Fecundity: Though breeding can be more difficult, it is similar to other species of cory. The female carries a few of the eggs between her fins while the male fertilizes them. She then finds a safe spot, usually heavy with vegetation, and hides them. They will continue this process until around 100 eggs have been fertilized. A pH of 7.0 is ideal for breeding and as always using cooler water for water changes can induce spawning.
Spawning_method: External fertilization in the water column. After bumping the male on the vent, the female will receive the sperm from the male into her mouth. She then discharges a few eggs which she catches and clasps with her ventral fins. Normally, this number is around 4 at a time. She will then swim around and deposit a bit of sperm and just a few eggs at a time in select spots, such as a strong plant, the heater tube or ever the aquarium glass.
Sexual_dimorphism: Females are often bigger and heavier than males. They also have rounder bellies which make their faces sit up off of the substrate when resting.

Feeding behaviour

Omnivorous

Mode of locomotion

Motility: motile_swimming

Reference(s)

Observation site(s)

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