Amphiprion ocellaris

Super Group: 
Opisthokonta
Phylum: 
Chordata
Sub-Phylum: 
Vertebrata
Class: 
Actinopteri
Order: 
Perciformes
Sub-Order: 
Labroidei
Family: 
Pomacentridae
Genus: 
Amphiprion
Species: 
ocellaris
Authority: 
Cuvier 1830
Synonym(s): 
Amphiprion bicolor (Castelnau 1873)
Amphiprion melanurus (Cuvier 1830)

Diagnosis

Diagnosis_Genus: Amphiprion Bloch & Schneider. i.e. utrinque serratus. Operculorum folia (laminae) anteriora et posteriora serrata.
Diagnosis_species: Amphiprion ocellaris Cuvier. Mr Valenciennes has observed at the office of the Zoological Society of London, a little Amphiprion of Sumatra, similar to a Perchot but whose bands are not lined with black. Caudal fin is lined with white, brown at the tip and wears down a large white ocellus. Pectoral fin is brown, with a white border. Its length is three quarters of an inch.
For size and appearance is very similar to the Amphiprion percula. It differs for the dorsal fin, which has, as an average, one extra spiny ray, less marked or almost absent black drawings and the body proportionally taller. The dorsal fin has 10-11 spiny rays plus 13-17 soft, the anal 2 spiny rays and 11-13 soft, whilst the pectoral ones, wide and roundish, count 16-18 unarmed rays. The ventral ones are more or less rounded, like the caudal, which becomes almost truncated in the biggest individuals. Also here, on the yellow-orange background, stand out three wide white vertical bands meant to break the contour of the fish.
Body_adults_female_length: 11 cm
Body_adults_male_length: 9 cm
Body_eggs_length: 1.5-3 mm (Madhu et al., 2012)
Body_eggs_wide: 0.80-1.84 mm (Madhu et al., 2012)
Sequence_tRNA: AP006017 (Li et al. 2015)
Sequence_12sRNA: AF081221 (Jang-Liaw et al. 2002)

Etymology

The name of the genus “amphiprion” comes from the Greek “amphi” = “on both sides” and “priön” = saw, seen that on both sides of the head the preoperculum and the suboperculum are indented like a saw. The name of the species “ocellaris” comes from the Latin “ocellus” = small eye, with reference to the caudal pattern.

Type species

The type species of the genus Amphiprion is Lutjanus ephippium (Bloch 1790) (Fishwisepro)

Ecology

The social hierarchy is simple and strict: the biggest fish in the group is a dominant female. Then, in order of size, follow the spouse and the other males, more or less tolerated, which wait for the death of the mistress for upgrading their rank. When this happens, the mourning over, the surviving spouse becomes female, and will marry the biggest male in the group.
Amphiprion ocellaris lives in Indo-West Pacific: eastern Indian Ocean including Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Thailand, Malaysia, and northwest Australia to Singapore, Indonesia, and the Philippines; ranges north to Taiwan and the Ryukyu Islands (Fishbase).
Habitat: coastal
Substrate: water
Sociability: gregarious
Salinity: marine
Temperature: 26-32°C
Temperature_reproduction: 25°C
pH: 8.0-8.5
pH_reproduction: 8.4
Depth: 1-15 m (Fishbase)
Oxygen_level: oxic
Depth_eggs: demersal (Fishbase)
Depth_larvae: pelagic

Life cycle

The spawning of Amphiprion ocellaris was found to be year-round with reproductive cycle of 12 to 15 days intervals and laid 300 to 1000 capsule shaped and adhesive type eggs. The number of eggs per spawning varied between 300 to 1000 eggs/pair at every 12 to 15 days interval giving an average of two spawning/ month/ pair (Madhu et al., 2012).
The life span of Amphiprion ocellaris is about ten years.
Amphiprion ocellaris is a non migratory species (Fishbase).
Amphiprion ocellaris is sexual dimorphic: females are larger than male.
Longevity: more than 3 years
Reproduction_mode: sexual_ hermaphrodite_protandrous (oviparous)
Generation_time: 8-18 months
Spawning_method: external fertilization in the water column
Fertility_period: year-round (Madhu et al., 2012)

Feeding behaviour

Omnivorous
Carnivorous

Mode of locomotion

Motility: motile_swimming

Reference(s)

Observation site(s)

ASQME static network (beta)

ASQME dynamic network (beta)

ASQME map (beta)