Pareques acuminatus

Super Group: 
Opisthokonta
Phylum: 
Chordata
Sub-Phylum: 
Vertebrata
Class: 
Actinopteri
Order: 
Perciformes
Sub-Order: 
Percoidei
Family: 
Sciaenidae
Genus: 
Pareques
Species: 
acuminatus
Authority: 
Bloch & Schneider 1801
Synonym(s): 
Equetus acuminatus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
Grammistes acuminatus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
Eques lineatus (Cuvier, 1830)
Eques pulcher (Steindachner, 1867)

Diagnosis

Diagnosis_Genus: Pareques Gill (in Goode, 1876). The genus Pareques is distinguished, according to Professor Gill, by the development of the spines of the first dorsal fin in normal number, (ten or eleven) as well as other osteological characters.

Diagnosis_Species: Grammiste acuminatus Bloch & Schneider. Corpore oblongo, albo, vittis fuscis vario, capite obtuso, parte anteriore pinnae dorsalis alta, acuminata, ventralibus nigris, caudali truncata, squamis subasperis, seriebus dentium minimorum pluribus maxilla superiore sublongiore. Chaetodon Sebae III, 72. n.33. t. 26. f.33. P.... V. 6. A. 9. 10. C... D. II/49. 50. Habitat --

Other description: It is usually the juveniles that you will find most often. Near shores in the shallows, a small black and white striped fish with a long dorsal fin. They are often called the "Fish with a face" because if the markings on their noses. They may be in small groups of 2 or 3 and hover at or near entrances to recesses near the sandy bottom. Will school with other juveniles grunts, lobsters or other residents of these protected recesses. As they mature, like so may other fish, they will move into deeper water 15 feet or more but still hang out close to the sea floor near overhangs and under rock recesses. The Highhat will always have a 'bar' across their face from eye to eye. Adults will reach about 8 inches in length (http://www.snorkelstj.com/highhat.html).

Body_adult_length: 13-20 cm (DORIS)
Body_adult_max_length: 23 cm (DORIS)
Body_larvae_newly_hatched_length: 2.29 mm (Holt & Riley, 1999)
Body_larvae_3DPH_length: 2.60 mm (Holt & Riley, 1999)
Body_larvae_5DPH_length: 2.83 mm (Holt & Riley, 1999)
Body_larvae_10DPH_length: 5.18 mm (Holt & Riley, 1999)
Body_larvae_flexion_14DPH_length: 5.85 mm (Holt & Riley, 1999)
Body_larvae_postflexion_19DPH_length: 7.70 mm (Holt & Riley, 1999)
Body_juvenile_31DPH_length: 19.25 mm (Holt & Riley, 1999)
 

Etymology

Pareques : from greeck [para-] = near, and from Latin [eques] = rider, knight because of its long dorsal in the form of a standard
acuminatus (from Latin) = which ends in a point (here again due to the appearance of the dorsal fin)

Type species

The type species of the genus Pareques acuminatus is Grammistes acuminatus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801).

Ecology

Pareques acuminatus lives in Western Atlantic: North Carolina, USA to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Although reported from Bermuda by recent authors, this species is not native to the said country (Fishbase).

Substratre: water
Salinity: marine
Depth: 5-20 m (DORIS)
Oxygen_level: oxic
Habitat: coastal
Depth_adult: demersal
Depth_larvae: pelagic
pH: 8.0-8.5 (Saltcorner)
Temperature: 22-28°C (Saltcorner)

 

Life cycle

Reproduction_mode: sexual (oviparous)

Feeding behaviour

Carnivorous

Mode of locomotion

Motility: motile_swimming

Reference(s)

Observation site(s)

SYMBIONTS

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Amyloodinium ocellatum Gulf Coast Research Laboratory

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