Pagellus bogaraveo

Super Group: 
Opisthokonta
Phylum: 
Chordata
Sub-Phylum: 
Vertebrata
Class: 
Actinopteri
Order: 
Perciformes
Sub-Order: 
Percoidei
Family: 
Sparidae
Genus: 
Pagellus
Species: 
bogaraveo
Authority: 
Brünnich 1768
Synonym(s): 
Pagellus centrodontus (Delaroche 1809)
Sparus bogaraveo (Brünnich 1768)
Pagellus cantabricus (Asso 1801)
Sparus centrodontus (Delaroche 1809)

Diagnosis

Diagnosis_Genus: Pagellus Cuvier & Valenciennes. We bring together, under the name of pagels, spares with rounded molars, whose front teeth are all more or less fine chard, not strong and conical, like those of pagrus and breams. Their molars are smaller than those of pagrus, and therefore much more than those of breams. There are often more than two rows; but those of the two outer rows are the biggest. Our seas have at least five species of this genus, easy to distinguish between them, and whose synonym is difficult to establish, and often uncertain, as the fish of our coast have been described in a vague and comparative manner.

Diagnosis_Species: Sparus bogaraveo Brünnich. Sparus corpore argenteo immaculato, incisoribus acutis. B. 6. D. I2/25. P. I5. V. I/6. A. 3/I6. C. 17. Descr. Corpus ovatum, compressum. Caput antice obtusum. Dentes minuti acuti. Linnea lateralis fusca, leviter arcuata. Cauda bifida, pinnae omnes pallidae; iris oculorum alba. Color capitis laete argenteus, qui in reliquo corpore immaculato est pallidior. Magnitudo 3-pollicaris. NOT. Piscis hic a reliquis sparis diversus, ideoque ut novus describitur. In piscatorio haud est insrequens.

Body_adults_length: 15-50 cm
Body_adults_length_max: 70 cm (Fishbase)
Body_sexual_maturity_length: 22-25 cm
Body_sexual_maturity_male_length: 28 cm (Micale et al., 2011)
Body_sexual_maturity_female_length: 29.5 cm (Micale et al., 2011)
Body_eggs_length: 1.19 mm (Fishbase)
Body_larval at hatching_length: 3.7 mm
Body_egg_length: 1.19 mm (Fishbase)
Body_larvae_newly_hatched: 3.7 mm (Fishbase)
Weight_max: 4.0 kg (Fishbase)
Sequence_12S: AY178432 (Meynard et al., 2012)
Sequence_Cytb: DQ197972 (Meynard et al., 2012)
Sequence_Rhod: DQ197874 (Meynard et al., 2012)
Sequence_DNA_mitochondrial: AB305023 (Chiba et al., 2009)

 

Etymology

Pagellus: Diminutive of Latin, pager, derived from Greek, pagros = a fish, Dentex sp. (Fishbase).

Type species

The type species of the genus Pagellus is Sparus erythrinus (Linnaeus 1758) (Animalbase).

 

Ecology

Pagellus bogaraveo lives in Eastern Atlantic: Norway, Strait of Gibraltar to Cape Blanc in Mauritania, Madeira, Canary Islands, and western Mediterranean (rare beyond the Sicilian Strait). Reported from Iceland  (Fishbase).
Juveniles and adults are associated with particular topographic features and sea-bed substrates. Juveniles are frequently observed in shallower waters (<100 m) near estuaries, while adults reside in deeper waters, especially near banks (Herrera, 2010).
No sexual dimorphism.

Migratory: highly_migratory species (Herrera, 2010)
Causality_of_migration: sexual_reproduction (Herrera, 2010)
Temporality_of_migration: seasonal (Herrera, 2010)
Habitat_juvenile: coast (Herrera, 2010)
Habitat_adult: continental_slope (Herrera, 2010)
Substrate:water
Sociability_adults: gregarious
Salinity: marine
Depth: 200-700 m (Herrera, 2010)
Depth_usually: 150-300 m (Fishbase)
Depth: demersal
Depth_adult: benthopelagic (Herrera, 2010)
Depth_larvae: pelagic (Herrera, 2010)
Temperature_preferred: 18°C (Fishbase)
Oxygen_level: oxic

Life cycle

The maximum life span reported for Pagellus bogaraveo is about 20 years and 15 years in the Azores Islands (Herrera, 2010).

Longevity: more than 3 years
Generation_time: 1 to 3 years (IUCN)
Reproduction_mode: sexual_hermaphrodite_protandrous
Fertility_period: seasonal (during spring) (February to April) (Micale et al., 2011)
Spawning_method: external fertilization in the water column
Fecondity_number_of_eggs_per_adult: 92000-1125000 eggs (for females between 29-46 cm length, Krug, 1998)
Fecondity_number_of_eggs_per_adult: 4254448 eggs (Gil & Sobrino, 2001)

Feeding behaviour

Omnivorous
Carnivorous

Mode of locomotion

Motility: motile_swimming

Reference(s)

Observation site(s)

SYMBIONTS

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Amyloodinium ocellatum Aquarium Zoological Society of London

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