Levanderina fissa

Super Group: 
Alveolata
Phylum: 
Dinophyta
Class: 
Dinophyceae
Order: 
Gymnodiniales
Genus: 
Levanderina
Species: 
fissa
Authority: 
(Levander) Moestrup, Hakanen, Hansen, Daugbjerg & Ellegaard
Synonym(s): 
Gymnodinium fissum Levander
Gyrodinium pavillardii Biecheler 1952, p. 42, figs XIX, LXVII–LXX
Gyrodinium uncatenum Hulburt 1957, p. 210, pl. 4, figs 1–3
Gyrodinium instriatum Freudenthal & Lee 1963, p. 183, figs 8–17
Gymnodinium instriatum (Freudenthal & Lee) Coats in Coats & Park 2002, p. 522
Gymnodinium uncatenum (Hulburt) Hallegraeff 2002, p. 40.

Diagnosis

Diagnose_Species: Levanderina fissa. Unarmoured dinoflagellates with U-shaped apical groove surrounding the cell apex and opening on the ventral side of the cell. Apical groove with three rows of vesicles. Nuclear envelope without vesicular chambers. Nucleus connected to the flagellar apparatus via a finger-like projection. Chloroplasts present. The sulcus divided into an inner tube containing the longitudinal flagellum and an outer, open furrow. Cell division in the motile stage.

Bloom: No
Toxicity: No

Etymology

The genus is named after Prof. Kaarlo Mainio Levander (1867–1943), primus motor in marine plankton research in Finland. Prof. Levander found and described the type and presently only species of the genus.

Type species

This is the type species (holotype) of the genus Levanderina.

Type illustration / Type locality / Type specimen

Type locality= strain K-1769 from the type locality, Lövö, southern Finland, Baltic Sea near Helsinki. 

Ecology

Substrate: planktonic
Sociability: solitary
Salinity: marine
pH: neutral

Feeding: Photosynthetic

Life cycle

Phases_alternance: haplontic
Generation: <1 month

Reproduction_mode: asexual_binary
Reproduction_mode: sexual
Resting_stage: cysts_sexual

Feeding behaviour

Photosynthetic

Mode of locomotion

Two flagella typical for Dinophyceae
Flagellum: 2
Motility: motile_swimming

Attached phylogeny

Observation site(s)

SYMBIONTS

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