Dormitator maculatus

Super Group: 
Opisthokonta
Phylum: 
Chordata
Sub-Phylum: 
Vertebrata
Class: 
Actinopteri
Order: 
Perciformes
Sub-Order: 
Gobioidei
Family: 
Eleotridae
Sub-Family: 
Eleotrinae
Genus: 
Dormitator
Species: 
maculatus
Authority: 
Bloch 1792
Synonym(s): 
Sciaena maculata (Bloch, 1792)
Eleotris somnulentus (Girard, 1858)
Dormitator lineatus (Gill, 1863)
Dormitator lophocephalus (Hoedeman, 1951)
Eleotris omocyaneus (Poey, 1860)

Diagnosis

Diagnosis_Species: Sciaena maculata Bloch. http://gdz.sub.uni-goettingen.de/dms/load/img/?PID=PPN595381200|LOG_0008&physid=PHYS_0052. Die Schwanzfloffe lanzettenformig. K. 4, Br. 12, B. 1/0, A. 1/8, S. 15, R. 7/2 9. Sciana pinnia caudae lanceolata. B, IV, P. XII, V. I/VI, A. I/VIII, C. XV, D. VII/VII. IX. Dieser Fisch zeichnet sich von den übrigen dieser Abtheilung, durch feine lanzettenförmige Schwanzflosse aus. In der Kiemenhaut zähle man vier, in der Brustslosse zwölf, in der Bauchslosse sechs, in der afterslosse acht, in der Schwanzslosse funfzehn, in der erslen Rückenflosse sieben, und in der zweiten neun Strahlen. Der Kopf ist kurz, dick, vornabgestumpst, und bis an die Augen schuppenlos. Die Kinnladen find von gleicher Länge, und mit auseinander stehenden, kleinen, spitzigen Zähnen besetzt. Die Zunge ist glatt und srey, die Nasenlöcher find einfach und zwifchen der Mundspitze und den Augen in der Mitte: diese haben einen schwarzen Stern, der von einen bläulichen Ringe umgeben wird. Die kiemendeckel find ungezähnelt, schuppig, und die Kiemenössnung ist weit. Die Rumpf ist gestreckt, und an den Seiten zusammengedrückt. Der Rücken ist rund, und macht vorn einen stachen Bogen. Eben diesesthut auch die ihm male liegende Seitenlinie. Der Bauch ist lang, und der Aster in der Mitte des Körpers befindlich. In der after und Bauchslosse ist nur ein harter Strahl und in der ersten Rückenslosse find sieben von der nehmlichen Art vorhanden. Die weichen Strahlen find bis aus die vierzweigigen am Schwanze gabelförmig. Die weichen Strahlen find bis aus die vierzweigigen am Schwanze gabelförmig. Der kopf une Rumpf find am Grunde gelb, und braun gesteckt. Die Flossen find am Grunde bläulich, übrigens aber, gelblich; alle find bis auf die an der Brust und dem Bauche schwarz gesteckt. Auch das Vaterland dieses Fisches ist mis unbekannt.
Eleotris somnulentus Girard.Spec Char.—Body sub-fusiform. Head contained about four times and a half in the total length. Snout rounded ; jaws equal ; gape of mouth somewhat oblique ; posterior extremity of maxillary extending to a vertical line intersecting the anterior rim of the orbit. Eye circular ; its diameter entering four times and a half in the length of the side of the head. Branchial isthmus narrow. Second dorsal fin higher than the first ; its posterior rays, like those of the anal, being the longest, and their extremities approximating the base of the caudal when inclined in that direction. Tips of ventrals not reaching the vent. Extremities of pectorals stretching somewhat beyond the ventrals. Caudal fin of the same length as the head, and posteriorly rounded. The scales are rather large, as deep as long ; smaller on the upper surface of the head than on the body. D VII, 9 ; A 10 ; C 4, 7, T, 4 ; V 5 ; P 14. Color reddish brown with interspersed light spots. A black spot above the insertion of the pectorals, and a streak from the eye to the angle of the mouth. Branchial apparatus purplish. Dorsals and anal spotted or barred. Caudal, ventrals, and pectorals greyish olive.

Diagnosis_genus: Dormitator Gill. Body moderately elongated, subfusiform, compressed, especially behind the anus, which is situated a little in advance of the middle of the length ; caudal peduncle oblong and contracted towards the middle, but slightly narrowed towards the caudal fin. Scales regularly imbricated, moderate in size, hexagonal, but apparently rather pentagonal, generally higher than long, with the posterior margin pectinated, the nucleus at or next to the posterior angle, from which striae radiate towards the anterior border ; the scales advance on the head. Head scaly, the scales advancing forwards above to the snout, and covering the cheeks and opercula, cycloid and smaller above and on the cheeks ; the head is rather small, considerably compressed and much higher than wide, nearly uniform in width, declining downwards to the snout ; the latter is convex, and its periphery arched ; the whole upper surface is convex and fleshy; the cheeks scarcely tumid. Eyes rather small, subcircular, entirely lateral, widely separated, and situated in the anterior half of the head. Opercula unarmed ; operculum fully developed, its length being nearly twice as great as the interval between it and the eye. Mouth with the cleft oblique, transverse, the periphery of each jaw semicircular, the supramaxillars ceasing nearly under the front of the orbit. Lower jaw nearly even with the upper. Intermaxillars, little protractile downwards,with the posterior processes short and wide, (connected), and the lateral branches thick and attenuated backwards, but near the ends with a thin, convex expansion above the posterior half. Supramaxillars longer than the intermaxillars, narrow, twisted, little curved, and behind compressed, and with a slight expansion downwards. Tongue fleshy, moderate, subtruncated in front and free at its tip. Teeth slender, conic, in a narrow band in each jaw, moveable in the external row in the lower. Palate smooth. Branchial apertures lateral, nearly vertical, continued above in a short slit of the oculo-scapular groove, below curved slightly forwards between the membrane and throat; isthmus moderate. Branchiostegal rays five. Anal papilla long and compressed. Dorsal fins two, the first generally with seven (6-8) spines, the anterior nearly uniform ; the second, short and high, (I. 8 9) ; the rays generally, with the anterior branch simple and the posterior forked ; the last ray free behind. Anal fin nearly opposite and similar to dorsal. Caudal fin large, convex behind. Pectoral fins well developed, equally convex behind, with the rays well developed, and only one or two upper and lower ones simple. Ventral fins inserted below the base of the pectoral, closely approximated but entirely free ; each with five rays, the fourth of which is longest. This genus is well distinguished by the combination of characters above given, especially the large scales, compressed and nearly uniformly wide declivous head, and the extension forwards of the bra-nchial apertures above. The genus Eleotris, from which the present is detached, as understood by Cuvier and his followers, appears to be rather entitled to the rank of a subfamily than to that of a genus. Valencinnes has distinguished the genus Philypnus. Bleeker recognizing the difference of many of the types referred to it, even after such restriction, has proposed to separate from it Culius, Butis,
Valenciennea (== Eleotriodes) and Belobranchus ; Poey has founded ErotelU and the Writer has established the genera Bostrichthys aud Dormitator. After all these dismemberments, there still remain, as types of distinct genera, the Eleotris ophiocephalui C. et. V. (genus Ophiocara); E. Mogurnda Rich. (g. Mogubnda) ; E.gobioides (g. Gobiomorphus) ; G.cyprinoides (g. Hypseleotris) ; E.maecrodon Blkr. (g. Odonteleotris) ; E. ttrigata 0. et V. (g. Callbleotris) and E. misrolepis, Blkr. (g, Ptereleotris), and perhaps still others. These various genera are distinguished by^he form of the body, length of the fins, the form of the caudal, that of the head, the dentition, extent of branchial apertures, number, &c, of branchiostegal rays and size of scales.
Body_male_length: 14.5 cm TL Body_max_length: 70.0 cm TL (male/unsexed) Body_length_male_sexual_maturity:  5.1 cm
Body_length_female_sexual_maturity: 4.5 cm
Body_eggs_length: 0.3 mm
Sequences_DNA: AY722137, AY722143 (Ariagna et al. 2010)
Sequences_DNA: KU764787-KU765046 (Cytb), KU765047-KU765129 (Rh),KU958382-KU958464 (β-actin) (Galván-Quesada et al. 2016)

Etymology

Dormitator: Latin, dormire = to sleep

Type species

The type species for the genus Dormitator is Eleotris somnulentus (Girard, 1858)

Type illustration / Type locality / Type specimen

Type locality: Havana, Santiago
Type specimen: Havana MCZ 13371-72 (1,1) (syntypes of Eleotris omocyneus); Santiago, ?MCZ 13374 (syntype of Eleotris gundlachi)
Type illustration: Sciaena maculata (plate 299, figure 2) (Bloch, 1792)

Ecology

Habitat: freshwater
Habitat: brackish
Habitat: demersal
Habitat: This species is distributed in the western Atlantic from North Carolina (USA) south along the U.S. and in the Bahamas, throughout the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea to southeastern Brazil. It has been recorded as far north as Massachusetts, however, rarely occurs past North Carolina. It can be found up to nine metres depth (Robins and Ray 1986, Rezendes-Medina 1973, Felder et al. 2009, Nordlie 2012). It is not known from the Cayman Islands (R. Robertson pers. comm. 2014). In the southern Gulf of Mexico is has been recorded from Pantanos de Centla, Mexico in Arroyo Punteada, the dredged canal San Román, the drains Narváez Norte and Narváez Sur, the lagoons Cantemoc, Concepción, El Coco, El Guanal, El Viento, Landeros, Larga, Los Ídolos, Punteada, El Sauzo, San Isidro, San Isidro El Jobo, San Pedrito, the Grijalva Centro River and the first section of the Ribera, Alta River (Usumacinta River) in 28.4°C and PSS 0.6, on average (Macossay-Cortez et al. 2011).
Salinity: marine
Temperature: 17°C - 35°C
Temperature_spawning: 27°C
Migratory: Yes. Amphidromous
Causality_of_migration: Sexual_reproduction (Winemiller and Ponwith, 1998)
Temporality_of_migration: seasonal (spring)
pH: 7.5 - 8.2
Oxygen_level: oxic
Depth: Epipelagic (0-2 m)

Life cycle

Longevity: more than 3 years (10-15 years)
Generation_time: 1 to 3 years (after 1 year)
Fecundity: They undergo coloration change during reproduction, carrying out a complex nuptial parade. Adults guard the nest. Incubation time is 11 to 16 hours at 27°C.
Reproduction_mode: Sexual
Spawning_method: External fertilization in the water column
 

Feeding behaviour

Omnivorous

Reference(s)

Observation site(s)

SYMBIONTS

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Amyloodinium ocellatum Gulf Coast Research Laboratory

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