Caranx crysos

Super Group: 
Opisthokonta
Phylum: 
Chordata
Sub-Phylum: 
Vertebrata
Class: 
Actinopteri
Order: 
Perciformes
Sub-Order: 
Percoidei
Family: 
Carangidae
Genus: 
Caranx
Species: 
crysos
Authority: 
Mitchill 1815
Synonym(s): 
Carangoides crysos (Mitchill, 1815)
Caranx fusus (Saint-Hilaire, 1817)
Caranx pisquetus (Cuvier, 1833)
Scomber chrysos (Mitchill, 1815)
Trachurus squamosus (Gronow, 1854)

Diagnosis

Diagnosis_genus: Caranx Lacépède. Two dorsal fins; no small fins above or below the tail; the sides of the tail lengthwise statements keel, or a small fin composed with two stings and a membrane in front of the anal fin.

Diagnosis_species: Scomber Crysos Mitchill. Yellow Mackerel. Length six inches and a half; depth two. A neat, compact, hand fish, about three quarters of an inch thick. He is plump and smooth generally. Back forms a neat regular curve. Belly an apposite corresponding sweep. Head neither rostrated nor blunt. Tail very slender, and ending in a fin deeply forked. A marine fish, taken in the bay of New-York. Lateral line bends upward about the thorax; then turns downward and runs straight to the middle of the tail. Soon after its curvature it becomes mailed and spinous. The spines are short, and directed backward. They are sharper and larger, and their bases wider as they approach the tail. Thus the line itself widens in its course backward. Mouth moderate. Lower jaw rather thin and small. Teeth minute, and may be said to be rather adapted to hold fast than to bite. Eyes yellow, and rather large. A black spot frequently at the edge of the gill-cover. Two dorsal fins, the foremost of which is spinous, and occupies but little space. In front of it, a spine pointing forward. The hinder dorsal filamentous, and continued almost to the tail. Two spines just behind the vent, and from them the ventral fin extends almost to the caudal. A bony ridge reaching from the upper part of the nose to the first spine of the back. Pectoral fins pointed; ventrals small. Colour of the back greenish blue, with a yellow suffusion. Yellow gilds the gill-covers, sides, and belly. The same golden hue also tinges the second dorsal, caudal, anal, pectoral, and ventral fins, in varying shades. The chin and gill-covers are whitened a little, and white likewise appears a little along the belly. Tongue yellow, and rather rough. Scales few, and easily deciduous. No zones, stripes, or spots any where about him; nor any spurious fins. But a sort of second lateral line near the roots of the dorsal fins, on each side of the back. Rays, Br. 7. D. 8-24. A. 19. P18. V. 4. C.18.
Body_length: 40-70 cm
Body_length_maturity: 26.7 cm (Florida), 22.5 cm (Louisiana), 26cm (Jamaica) (Goodwin and Finucane, 1985)
Max_weight: 5.1 kg

Etymology

Caranx: French, carangue, the name of a Caribbean fish

Type species

The type species of the genus Caranx is Caranx carangua (Lacepède 1801) (Animalbase).
 

Type illustration / Type locality / Type specimen

Type locality: New York Bay, New York, U.S.A.
Type illustration: Scomber Crysos Mitchill 1815. P 424. Illustrations :  Pl. 4 (fig. 2).

Ecology

Habitat: coastal
Habitat: In the eastern Atlantic, the Blue Runner (Caranx crysos) is found in the Mediterranean, south to Senegal to Angola (Froese and Pauly 2006). This range has been extended north with the first record for the French Atlantic coast, from Arcachon, Bay of Biscay (Quero et al. 1994), and two more recent records from the coast of Dorset and Cornwall in England (Sawby et al. 1996); this now brings the British records to 13 individuals (D. Herdson pers. comm. 2007). The northward extension of this species' range is thought to be related to increasing sea temperatures in the North Atlantic (Stebbing et al. 2002).
In the western Atlantic this species is recorded from Nova Scotia (Canada), Brazil, Bahamas, throughout the Caribbean (including Antilles) and the Gulf of Mexico.
Habitat: coastal
Substrate: marine
Salinity: brackish
Temperature: 24°C
Depth: pelagic (0 - 100 m)
Migratory: Yes. Diel vertical migration
Causality_of_migration: temperature (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blue_runner)
Temporality_of_migration: Seasonal

Life cycle

Longevity: more then 3 years
Generation_time_male: 1 to 3 years (2.4 years)
Generation_time_female: 1 to 3 years (2.8 years)
Fecondity_number of eggs per adult: 41,000-1,000,000
Fertility period: Seasonal (during summer). They spawn offshore from January through August. Eggs are pelagic.
reproduction_mode: sexual
Spawning_method: External fertilization in the water column

Feeding behaviour

Omnivorous

Mode of locomotion

Motility: motile_swimming

Original description

Mitchill on the Fishes of New York

Mitchill SLathan (1815) Mitchill on the Fishes of New York. In: Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New-York . Van Winkle and Wiley, New-York , p 617

Reference(s)

Observation site(s)

SYMBIONTS

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Amyloodinium ocellatum New York Aquarium

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