Archosargus rhomboidalis

Super Group: 
Opisthokonta
Phylum: 
Chordata
Sub-Phylum: 
Vertebrata
Class: 
Actinopteri
Order: 
Perciformes
Sub-Order: 
Percoidei
Family: 
Sparidae
Genus: 
Archosargus
Species: 
rhomboidalis
Authority: 
Linnaeus 1758
Synonym(s): 
Perca rhomboidalis (Linnaeus 1758)
Archosargus unimaculatus (Bloch 1792)

Diagnosis

Diagnosis_Genus: Archosargus Gill. The Sargus probatocephalus agrees with Stenotomus and differs from Sargus in being armed with recumbent dorsal spine, and may be called Archosargus. Σdρyοѕ Sargus. The sheeps-head (Archosargus probatocephalus) is pre-eminent among the Sparoids for the delicacy of its flesh as well as its size.

Diagnosis_Species: Perca rhomboidalis Linnaeus. Caput: Opercula squamosa serrata. Membr. branch. radiis VII. Corpus pinnis spinosis. P. lineis 7 luteis, pinnis flavis, cauda bifurca. Castesb. car. 2. p. 4. t. 4. Perca marina rhomboidalis fasciata. Brown. jam. I46. Sparus striis longitudinalibus varius, dentibus anterioribus latioribus compressis aequalibus acutis. Habitat in America.

Other description(Ibiologia): Body oval, compressed, and rather deep (the depth contained 1.8 to 2.2 times in standard length). Snout rather blunt; posterior nostril slit-like; mouth comparatively small, the maxilla not reaching to below anterior eye margin. Jaws anteriorly with a series of broad, incisor-like teeth, their edge entire or only slightly notched (in large adults); laterally, several series of molar-like teeth (3 in upper jaw, 2 in lower). Dorsal fin with 13 strong spines and usually 11 soft rays; preceeded by a small for- ward-directed spine embedded in the skin; anal fin with 3 spines, the second remarkably strong, and usually 10 soft rays; pectoral fins long extending beyond anal opening when appressed; caudal fin forked, upper lobe slightly longer than lower. Scales in lateral line 46 to 49. Colour: body silvery olivaceous, with golden-yellow longitudinal stripes and a blackish spot about as large as eye near origin of lateral line; dorsal fin edged with black.

Body_adults_length_mean: 20 cm
Body_adults_length_max: 33 cm
Body_juveniles_length: 13-20 mm (Houde & Potthoff, 1976)
Body_eggs_length_mean: 0.80-0.94 mm (Powell and Greene, 2002)
Body_newly hatched larvae_length: 2.0-2.2 mm (Houde & Potthoff, 1976)
Body_larvae_flexion_length: 4.2 mm (Powell and Greene, 2002)
Body_larvae_transformation_length: 16 mm (Powell and Greene, 2002)

Etymology

Archosargus: Greek, archo = anus + Latin , sargus = sea bream

Type species

The type species of the genus Archosargus is Sparus probatocephalus (Walbaum 1792) (Animalbase).

Ecology

Archosargus rhomboidalis lives in New Jersey, eastern Gulf of Mexico along the Caribbean coast to Brazil, rare in north of Florida (Powell and Greene, 2002).
Habitat: coastal
Habitat: mangrove
Substrate: water
Salinity: marine
Salinity: brackish
Temperature: 22-34°C (Fishbase)
Depth: 1.5-116 m (Conabio)

Life cycle

Sexual dimorphism : Pelvic fin coloration totally or partially dark in males; orange colored in females (Fishbase).

Reproduction_mode: sexual (oviparous)
Longevity: 1 to 2 years (Powell and Greene, 2002)
Generation_time: 3 to 12 months (Powell and Greene, 2002)
Spawning_method: external fertilization in the water column
Fertility_period: seasonal (September to May in Biscayne Bay; January to July in Terminos Lagoo, Mexico) (Powell and Greene, 2002)

Feeding behaviour

Omnivorous

Mode of locomotion

Motility: motile_swimming

Reference(s)

Observation site(s)

SYMBIONTS

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Amyloodinium ocellatum Laguna de la Restinga

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